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                      中英對照 擔保法

                      所屬教程:法律英語講解

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                      qinting

                      2018年10月15日

                      隨身學
                      掃描二維碼方便學習和分享

                      Judicial Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Some Issues Regarding the Application of Security Law of the People's Republic of China
                      This Interpretation is adopted by the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court in its No.1133 Conference on September 29, 2000 and promulgated now. It will come into force as of December 13, 2000.
                      December 8, 2000
                      Judicial Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Some Issues Regarding the Application of Security Law
                      (Adopted by the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court in its No.1133 at Conference No. 1133 on September 29, 2000. Decree NO. 44.)
                      In light of ensuring the correct application of the Guaranty Law of the People's Republic of China and Considering the Judicial experiences of the People's courts, the following interpretations have been made concerning the application of law in the court's handling of disputes of guaranty. Based on the judicial experience, this Interpretation is promulgated for the people's courts to correctly apply the Security Law of the People's Republic of China(hereinafter "Security Law") in dealing with security disputes.

                       

                      中華人民共和國最高人民法院公告

                      (相關資料:部門規章5篇司法解釋11篇其他規范性文件3篇地方法規7篇案例24篇裁判文書1891篇相關論文74篇實務指南)
                      《最高人民法院關于適用〈中華人民共和國擔保法〉若干問題的解釋》已于2000年9月29日由最高人民法院審判委員會第1133次會議通過,現予公布,自2000年12月13日起施行。
                      2000年12月8日
                      最高人民法院關于適用《中華人民共和國擔保法》若干問題的解釋
                      (2000年9月29日最高人民法院審判委員會
                      第1133次會議通過 法釋〔2000〕44號)
                      為了正確適用《中華人民共和國擔保法》(以下簡稱擔保法),結合審判實踐經驗,對人民法院審理擔保糾紛案件適用法律問題作出如下解釋。

                      PART ONE: INTERPRETATION OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES

                       

                      一、關于總則部分的解釋

                      Article 1 A security created by the parties for the creditor's obligation arising from civil relations may be considered effective if it accords with the forms stipulated in the Security Law and does not violate any compulsory provisions in laws and regulations.

                       

                      第一條當事人對由民事關系產生的債權,在不違反法律、法規強制性規定的情況下,以擔保法規定的方式設定擔保的,可以認定為有效。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書11篇實務指南)

                      Article 2 Counter-security provider may be the debtor or some other party.
                      The form of counter-security may be mortgage or pledge offered by the debtor, or guarantee, mortgage or pledge offered by some other party.

                       

                      第二條反擔保人可以是債務人,也可以是債務人之外的其他人。
                      反擔保方式可以是債務人提供的抵押或者質押,也可以是其他人提供的保證、抵押或者質押。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書14篇實務指南)

                      Article 3 A security contract shall be invalid if state organs and institutions, social organizations for the public good violate the law by acting as security provider. The creditor's consequent loss shall be compensated pursuant to Article 5(2) of Security Law.

                       

                      第三條國家機關和以公益為目的的事業單位、社會團體違反法律規定提供擔保的,擔保合同無效。因此給債權人造成損失的,應當根據擔保法第五條第二款的規定處理。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書26篇實務指南)

                      Article 4 A security contract shall be invalid if the directors and managers violate Article 60 of PRC Company Law by providing security for the debt of company's shareholder or other persons. The debtor and security provider shall bear joint compensation liability for creditor's loss unless the creditor knows or should know about the fact.

                       

                      第四條董事、經理違反《中華人民共和國公司法》第六十條的規定,以公司資產為本公司的股東或者其他個人債務提供擔保的,擔保合同無效。除債權人知道或者應當知道的外,債務人、擔保人應當對債權人的損失承擔連帶賠償責任。
                      (相關資料:案例2篇裁判文書65篇相關論文3篇實務指南)

                      Article 5 If a security is created on a property that is prohibited by laws and regulations from circulating, or not transferable, the security contract shall be invalid.
                      If a security is created on a property restricted by laws and regulations from circulating, the people's court shall dispose of the property to realize the creditor's right according to relevant laws and regulations.

                       

                      第五條以法律、法規禁止流通的財產或者不可轉讓的財產設定擔保的,擔保合同無效。
                      以法律、法規限制流通的財產設定擔保的,在實現債權時,人民法院應當按照有關法律、法規的規定對該財產進行處理。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書1篇實務指南)

                      Article 6 A foreign security contract shall be invalid if:

                       

                      第六條有下列情形之一的,對外擔保合同無效:

                      1. the security is not approved or registered by relevant administration authorities;

                       

                      (一)未經國家有關主管部門批準或者登記對外擔保的;

                      2. the security is provided to domestic creditor for overseas organs without approval or registration by relevant administration authorities;

                       

                      (二)未經國家有關主管部門批準或者登記,為境外機構向境內債權人提供擔保的;

                      3. the security is created to secure registered capital or the foreign party's external debt of its investment in a foreign-invested enterprise;

                       

                      (三)為外商投資企業注冊資本、外商投資企業中的外方投資部分的對外債務提供擔保的;

                      4. a foreign exchange security is provided by a financial organ whose business scope does not include foreign exchange security, or a foreign exchange security offered by a non-financial enterprise legal person without foreign exchange income;

                       

                      (四)無權經營外匯擔保業務的金融機構、無外匯收入的非金融性質的企業法人提供外匯擔保的;

                      5. the security provider will not assume any obligation if the principal contract is altered or the creditor transfers the right of a foreign security contract without consent of the security provider or approval of relevant administration authorities, except as otherwise provided by laws and regulations.

                       

                      (五)主合同變更或者債權人將對外擔保合同項下的權利轉讓,未經擔保人同意和國家有關主管部門批準的,擔保人不再承擔擔保責任。但法律、法規另有規定的除外。
                      (相關資料:司法解釋1篇案例3篇裁判文書58篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 7 The security provider and debtor shall assume joint compensation liability for the creditor's loss on the condition that the principal contract is valid while the security contract is invalid, and the creditor is not at fault. If the creditor and security provider are both at fault, the security provider's portion of civil liability shall not exceed half of the debtor's unpayable portion.

                       

                      第七條主合同有效而擔保合同無效,債權人無過錯的,擔保人與債務人對主合同債權人的經濟損失,承擔連帶賠償責任;債權人、擔保人有過錯的,擔保人承擔民事責任的部分,不應超過債務人不能清償部分的二分之一。
                      (相關資料:司法解釋1篇地方法規1篇案例5篇裁判文書179篇相關論文2篇實務指南)

                      Article 8 The security provider shall not assume any civil obligation if the security contract is invalid due to the invalidity of the principal contract and the provider is not at fault. If the security provider is at fault, he shall bear no more than one third of the obligation that can not be fulfilled by the debtor.

                       

                      第八條主合同無效而導致擔保合同無效,擔保人無過錯的,擔保人不承擔民事責任;擔保人有過錯的,擔保人承擔民事責任的部分,不應超過債務人不能清償部分的三分之一。
                      (相關資料:地方法規1篇案例3篇裁判文書124篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 9 The security provider may have recourse against the debtor after assuming compensation liability to the creditor in case of invalid security contract. The security provider may also require the counter-security provider at fault to bear the liability within the compensation scope.
                      The security provider may bring a lawsuit against the debtor or counter-security provider on the basis of the fact that compensation has been made fact.

                       

                      第九條擔保人因無效擔保合同向債權人承擔賠償責任后,可以向債務人追償,或者在承擔賠償責任的范圍內,要求有過錯的反擔保人承擔賠償責任。
                      擔保人可以根據承擔賠償責任的事實對債務人或者反擔保人另行提起訴訟。
                      (相關資料:案例2篇裁判文書39篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 10 After termination of principal contract, the guarantor shall still be liable to the debtor for the latter's civil obligation, except as otherwise stipulated by security contract.

                       

                      第十條主合同解除后,擔保人對債務人應當承擔的民事責任仍應承擔擔保責任。但是,擔保合同另有約定的除外。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書35篇實務指南)

                      Article 11 The act of concluding a security contract by the legal representative or person in charge in a judicial person or other organization beyond their scope of authorization shall be valid , except when the counter party knows or should know about such fact.

                       

                      第十一條法人或者其他組織的法定代表人、負責人超越權限訂立的擔保合同,除相對人知道或者應當知道其超越權限的以外,該代表行為有效。
                      (相關資料:案例1篇裁判文書5篇實務指南)

                      Article 12 The security term agreed upon by the parties or required by registration authorities shall not affect the continuity of the security.
                      Within two years after the limitation of action for a creditor's secured right expires, the people's court shall support the creditor's exercise of his security right.

                       

                      第十二條當事人約定的或者登記部門要求登記的擔保期間,對擔保物權的存續不具有法律約束力。
                      擔保物權所擔保的債權的訴訟時效結束后,擔保權人在訴訟時效結束后的二年內行使擔保物權的,人民法院應當予以支持。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書62篇相關論文3篇實務指南)

                      PART II INTERPRETATION OF GUARANTEE

                       

                      二、關于保證部分的解釋

                      Article 13 If a guarantee contract reads that the guarantor shall fulfill a non-monetary obligation and the guarantor defaults, he shall compensate the creditor for the consequent loss.

                       

                      第十三條保證合同中約定保證人代為履行非金錢債務的,如果保證人不能實際代為履行,對債權人因此造成的損失,保證人應當承擔賠償責任。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書2篇實務指南)

                      Article 14 If the any legal persons, other organizations or natural persons without complete solvency enters into any guarantee contract as a guarantor, and require pleads to be exempted from guarantee liability for their lack of solvency afterwards, such pleadings shall not be supported by the people's court shall not support it..

                       

                      第十四條不具有完全代償能力的法人、其他組織或者自然人,以保證人身份訂立保證合同后,又以自己沒有代償能力要求免除保證責任的,人民法院不予支持。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書4篇實務指南)

                      Article 15 Other organizations provided in Article 7of Security Law mainly include:

                       

                      第十五條擔保法第七條規定的其他組織主要包括:

                      1. independently-invested and partnership enterprises with legal registration and business license;

                       

                      (一)依法登記領取營業執照的獨資企業、合伙企業;

                      2. jointly-operated enterprises with legal registration and business license;

                       

                      (二)依法登記領取營業執照的聯營企業;

                      3. Sino-sino-foreign cooperative joint ventures with legal registration and business license;

                       

                      (三)依法登記領取營業執照的中外合作經營企業;

                      4. social organizations approved and registered by civil authorities;

                       

                      (四)經民政部門核準登記的社會團體;

                      5. township, neighborhood and village enterprises with legal registration and business license;

                       

                      (五)經核準登記領取營業執照的鄉鎮、街道、村辦企業。
                      (相關資料:實務指南)

                      Article 16 The guarantee contract entered into by operating institutions or social organizations as guarantor shall be deemed valid, if there is no reason for invalidity of the contract.

                       

                      第十六條從事經營活動的事業單位、社會團體為保證人的,如無其他導致保證合同無效的情況,其所簽定的保證合同應當認定為有效。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書2篇實務指南)

                      Article 17 A guarantee contract shall be invalid if the guarantee is provided by branch of enterprise legal person without authorization by such legal person. The consequent loss of creditor shall be compensated according to Article 5(2) of Security Law.
                      When providing guarantee with written authorization of enterprise legal person, if the scope of authorization is not clear, the branch of enterprise legal person shall assume full responsibility for the debt agreed upon in the guarantee contract.
                      If the guarantee liability exceeds the property amount of the branch, the enterprise legal person shall assume the obligation.
                      The branch shall bear compensation liability with its own property when the guarantee contract is invalid. If the enterprise legal person is at fault, Article 29 of Security Law shall apply.

                       

                      第十七條企業法人的分支機構未經法人書面授權提供保證的,保證合同無效。因此給債權人造成損失的,應當根據擔保法第五條第二款的規定處理。
                      企業法人的分支機構經法人書面授權提供保證的,如果法人的書面授權范圍不明,法人的分支機構應當對保證合同約定的全部債務承擔保證責任。
                      企業法人的分支機構經營管理的財產不足以承擔保證責任的,由企業法人承擔民事責任。
                      企業法人的分支機構提供的保證無效后應當承擔賠償責任的,由分支機構經營管理的財產承擔。企業法人有過錯的,按照擔保法第二十九條的規定處理。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書20篇實務指南)

                      Article 18 A guarantee offered by functional divisions of enterprise legal person is invalid. The creditor shall bear consequent loss if he knows or should know that the guarantor is a functional division of an enterprise legal person.
                      If the creditor is not aware that the guarantor is a functional division of an enterprise legal person, the consequent loss may be dealt with according to Article 5(2) and Article 29 of Security Law.

                       

                      第十八條企業法人的職能部門提供保證的,保證合同無效。債權人知道或者應當知道保證人為企業法人的職能部門的,因此造成的損失由債權人自行承擔。
                      債權人不知保證人為企業法人的職能部門,因此造成的損失,可以參照擔保法第五條第二款的規定和第二十九條的規定處理。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書3篇實務指南)

                      Article 19 Where two or more guarantors secure the same debt simultaneously or respectively, but guarantors and creditor have not agreed on guarantee shares, such guarantee shall be deemed as joint guarantee.
                      Where the joint guarantors defend against creditor with their internal agreement of guarantee shares, such defense shall not be supported by the people's court.

                       

                      第十九條兩個以上保證人對同一債務同時或者分別提供保證時,各保證人與債權人沒有約定保證份額的,應當認定為連帶共同保證。
                      連帶共同保證的保證人以其相互之間約定各自承擔的份額對抗債權人的,人民法院不予支持。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書120篇實務指南)

                      Article 20 If the debtor of a joint guarantee does not fulfill his liability upon the termination of term for performance as written in the principal contract, the creditor may require the debtor to fulfill his liability or require any one of the guarantors to bear the entire liability.
                      After undertaking guarantee responsibility, the joint guarantors may divide the portion that is unrecoverable from the debtor according to the share agreed upon internally. If no such share is agreed upon, this portion shall be divided equally.

                       

                      第二十條連帶共同保證的債務人在主合同規定的債務履行期屆滿沒有履行債務的,債權人可以要求債務人履行債務,也可以要求任何一個保證人承擔全部保證責任。
                      連帶共同保證的保證人承擔保證責任后,向債務人不能追償的部分,由各連帶保證人按其內部約定的比例分擔。沒有約定的,平均分擔。
                      (相關資料:案例1篇裁判文書109篇實務指南)

                      Article 21 The joint guarantors by shares shall be entitled to claim repayment from the debtor within the scope of guarantee liability after fulfilling their own shares of guarantee responsibilities as agreed upon in the guarantee contract.

                       

                      第二十一條按份共同保證的保證人按照保證合同約定的保證份額承擔保證責任后,在其履行保證責任的范圍內對債務人行使追償權。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書4篇實務指南)

                      Article 22 Without holding objection, the creditor accepts a written guarantee which is unilaterally provided by a third party, the guarantee contract shall be concluded.
                      Where the guarantor signs or stamps on the principal contract without guarantee terms in the capacity of guarantor, the guarantee contract shall be concluded.

                       

                      第二十二條第三人單方以書面形式向債權人出具擔保書,債權人接受且未提出異議的,保證合同成立。
                      主合同中雖然沒有保證條款,但是,保證人在主合同上以保證人的身份簽字或者蓋章的,保證合同成立。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書61篇實務指南)

                      Article 23 After specifying the uncertain obligation in a contract of a guarantee up to a maximum amount, the guarantor shall assume responsibility within the maximum amount for the continuous obligations arising in a specific period.

                       

                      第二十三條最高額保證合同的不特定債權確定后,保證人應當對在最高債權額限度內就一定期間連續發生的債權余額承擔保證責任。
                      (相關資料:案例1篇裁判文書25篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 24 At the expiration of term for obligation performance in a principal contract, if the general guarantor provides authentic information to the creditor concerning the debtor's property that is eligible for execution, but the creditor waivers or neglects the right and causes the failure of execution on this property, the guarantor may require the court to exempt him from security liability within the actual value scope of the above property.

                       

                      第二十四條一般保證的保證人在主債權履行期間屆滿后,向債權人提供了債務人可供執行財產的真實情況的,債權人放棄或者怠于行使權利致使該財產不能被執行,保證人可以請求人民法院在其提供可供執行財產的實際價值范圍內免除保證責任。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書2篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 25 Major difficulties The major difficult conditions for the creditor to require the debtor to perform obligation stipulated in Section A of Article 17 (3) include : unknown whereabouts, emigration of the debtor or no property of the debtor to be executed.

                       

                      第二十五條擔保法第十七條第三款第(一)項規定的債權人要求債務人履行債務發生的重大困難情形,包括債務人下落不明、移居境外,且無財產可供執行。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書2篇實務指南)

                      Article 26 The third party that guarantees for the creditor to supervise the special purpose of a special fund will be free from liability after performance of the above obligation. If the third party defaults and results in suffers capital loss, he it shall bear supplementary compensation liability for the lost capital.

                       

                      第二十六條第三人向債權人保證監督支付專款專用的,在履行了監督支付專款專用的義務后,不再承擔責任。未盡監督義務造成資金流失的,應當對流失的資金承擔補充賠償責任。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書2篇實務指南)

                      Article 27 Where the guarantor secures the debtor's registered capital and the debtor's actual investment does not accord with registered capital, or the debtor withdraws and transfers the registered capital, the guarantor shall assume joint security liability in the scope of the insufficient capital or transferred capital.

                       

                      第二十七條保證人對債務人的注冊資金提供保證的,債務人的實際投資與注冊資金不符,或者抽逃轉移注冊資金的,保證人在注冊資金不足或者抽逃轉移注冊資金的范圍內承擔連帶保證責任。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書3篇實務指南)

                      Article 28 When the creditor lawfully transfers his principal obligation to a third party during the guarantee period, the guaranteed obligation shall be transferred simultaneously and the guarantor shall fulfill his guarantee liability for the transferee in the original scope of the guarantee. The guarantor shall be exempt from liability if it is agreed by guarantor and creditor that the guarantee is provided only to specific creditor or the credit is not transferable.

                       

                      第二十八條保證期間,債權人依法將主債權轉讓給第三人的,保證債權同時轉讓,保證人在原保證擔保的范圍內對受讓人承擔保證責任。但是保證人與債權人事先約定僅對特定的債權人承擔保證責任或者禁止債權轉讓的,保證人不再承擔保證責任。
                      (相關資料:案例1篇裁判文書16篇實務指南)

                      Article 29 In the guarantee term, if the creditor allows the debtor to transfer part of his debt without written consent of the guarantor, the guarantor will not bear any liability for that part of the debt, while he is still liable for the remaining part of the debt.

                       

                      第二十九條保證期間,債權人許可債務人轉讓部分債務未經保證人書面同意的,保證人對未經其同意轉讓部分的債務,不再承擔保證責任。但是,保證人仍應當對未轉讓部分的債務承擔保證責任。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書2篇實務指南)

                      Article 30 In the guarantee term, if without guarantor's consent, the creditor and the debtor alter quantity, price, currency , interest rate and the like of the principal contract, and if the alteration reduces the debtor's obligation, the guarantor shall still bear the liability for the altered contract; if the alteration increases the debtor's obligation, the guarantor will not be liable for the increased portion.
                      Without the guarantor's written consent, if the creditor and debtor alter the performance duration of the principal contract, the guarantee duration shall remain unchanged or shall be the statutory duration.
                      The guarantor shall still bear the security liability if the creditor and debtor agree to alter content of principal contract but have not performed accordingly.

                       

                      第三十條保證期間,債權人與債務人對主合同數量、價款、幣種、利率等內容作了變動,未經保證人同意的,如果減輕債務人的債務的,保證人仍應當對變更后的合同承擔保證責任;如果加重債務人的債務的,保證人對加重的部分不承擔保證責任。
                      債權人與債務人對主合同履行期限作了變動,未經保證人書面同意的,保證期間為原合同約定的或者法律規定的期間。
                      債權人與債務人協議變動主合同內容,但并未實際履行的,保證人仍應當承擔保證責任。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書47篇相關論文2篇實務指南)

                      Article 31 The duration of the guarantee shall not be suspended, discontinued or extended under any circumstances.

                       

                      第三十一條保證期間不因任何事由發生中斷、中止、延長的法律后果。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書25篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 32 A guarantee term stipulated in a guarantee contract which is earlier than or the same as the performance term of principal debt shall be deemed as not stipulated. The guarantee term shall be six months from the expiration date of the term for performance of the principal obligation.
                      It will be considered as an unclear provision if the guarantee contract stipulates that the guarantor shall bear liability until the principal amount and interest for the principal debt have been paid. The guarantee term shall be two years from the expiration of the term for performance of the principal obligation.

                       

                      第三十二條保證合同約定的保證期間早于或者等于主債務履行期限的,視為沒有約定,保證期間為主債務履行期屆滿之日起六個月。
                      保證合同約定保證人承擔保證責任直至主債務本息還清時為止等類似內容的,視為約定不明,保證期間為主債務履行期屆滿之日起二年。
                      (相關資料:其他規范性文件1篇案例2篇裁判文書151篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 33 Where there is no stipulation or no clear stipulation in the principal contract concerning the performance term for principal debt, the guarantee term shall be computed from the expiration date of the  grace period for the debtor to fulfill his obligation.

                       

                      第三十三條主合同對主債務履行期限沒有約定或者約定不明的,保證期間自債權人要求債務人履行義務的寬限期屆滿之日起計算。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書18篇實務指南)

                      Article 34 Where the creditor of a general guarantee files a suit or applies for arbitration against the debtor before the expiration of the  guarantee term, the limitation of action for guarantee contract shall be computed from the effective date of verdict or arbitration award.
                      When the creditor of joint liability guarantee requires the guarantor to assume liability before the expiration date of guarantee term, the limitation of action for the guarantee contract shall be computed from the date of the creditor's requirement.

                       

                      第三十四條一般保證的債權人在保證期間屆滿前對債務人提起訴訟或者申請仲裁的,從判決或者仲裁裁決生效之日起,開始計算保證合同的訴訟時效。
                      連帶責任保證的債權人在保證期間屆滿前要求保證人承擔保證責任的,從債權人要求保證人承擔保證責任之日起,開始計算保證合同的訴訟時效。
                      (相關資料:司法解釋1篇案例1篇裁判文書87篇實務指南)

                      Article 35 Where the guarantor bears liability or provides guarantee for debt that has exceeded the limitation of action, if and he defends on the basis that such liability has exceeded the limitation of action, with the above fact afterwards, the people's court shall not support him.

                       

                      第三十五條保證人對已經超過訴訟時效期間的債務承擔保證責任或者提供保證的,又以超過訴訟時效為由抗辯的,人民法院不予支持。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書13篇實務指南)

                      Article 36 In a general guarantee, the limitation of action for guarantee debt will discontinue when that of the principal debt discontinues. In joint liability guarantee, the limitation of action for guarantee debt will not discontinue when that of the principal debt discontinues.
                      In both general and joint liability guarantees, the limitation of action for guarantee debt will suspend when that of the principal debt suspend.

                       

                      第三十六條一般保證中,主債務訴訟時效中斷,保證債務訴訟時效中斷;連帶責任保證中,主債務訴訟時效中斷,保證債務訴訟時效不中斷。
                      一般保證和連帶責任保證中,主債務訴訟時效中止的,保證債務的訴訟時效同時中止。
                      (相關資料:司法解釋1篇其他規范性文件1篇案例1篇裁判文書13篇實務指南)

                      Article 37 Where there is no agreement or no clear agreement on the guarantee term in the contract of guarantee up to a maximum amount, if the term for guarantor to pay debt is written in the contract, the guarantee term shall be six months from the expiration of the term for guarantor's payment of debt. If the term for payment of debt is not stipulated in the  contract, the guarantee term shall be six months from the termination of the  guarantee up to the a maximum amount, or six months from the date of the creditor's receiving of the guarantor's written notice about terminating guarantee contract.

                       

                      第三十七條最高額保證合同對保證期間沒有約定或者約定不明的,如最高額保證合同約定有保證人清償債務期限的,保證期間為清償期限屆滿之日起六個月。沒有約定債務清償期限的,保證期間自最高額保證終止之日或自債權人收到保證人終止保證合同的書面通知到達之日起六個月。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書9篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 38 Where an obligation is secured by both a guarantee and a property security of a third party, the creditor may require the guarantor or such third party to perform obligation. Where there is no agreement or no clear agreement by the parties concerning the scope of guarantee or property security, the guarantor who has fulfilled the liability may have recourse against the debtor or have the right to require the other guarantors to answer for their shares.
                      Where an obligation is secured by both a guarantee and property security, if the security contract of property is proved invalid or rescinded, or the property is lost due to force majeure and no substitute is available, the guarantor shall still assume liability as stipulated by contract or by law.
                      Where the creditor fails to exercise the property security after the expiration of performance term for principal contract, and thus results in depreciation, damage or loss of the security property, part or all of the property security shall be deemed as waived by the creditor. The guarantor will be lessened or exempted from obligation for the rights waived by such creditor.

                       

                      第三十八條同一債權既有保證又有第三人提供物的擔保的,債權人可以請求保證人或者物的擔保人承擔擔保責任。當事人對保證擔保的范圍或者物的擔保的范圍沒有約定或者約定不明的,承擔了擔保責任的擔保人,可以向債務人追償,也可以要求其他擔保人清償其應當分擔的份額。
                      同一債權既有保證又有物的擔保的,物的擔保合同被確認無效或者被撤銷,或者擔保物因不可抗力的原因滅失而沒有代位物的,保證人仍應當按合同的約定或者法律的規定承擔保證責任。
                      債權人在主合同履行期屆滿后怠于行使擔保物權,致使擔保物的價值減少或者毀損、滅失的,視為債權人放棄部分或者全部物的擔保。保證人在債權人放棄權利的范圍內減輕或者免除保證責任。
                      (相關資料:司法解釋1篇裁判文書98篇相關論文2篇實務指南)

                      Article 39 Where the parties of the principal contract agree to repay an old loan with a new loan, the guarantor will not bear liability except when he knows or should know about this.
                      The above provision shall not apply where the same guarantor secures the two loans.

                       

                      第三十九條主合同當事人雙方協議以新貸償還舊貸,除保證人知道或者應當知道的外,保證人不承擔民事責任。
                      新貸與舊貸系同一保證人的,不適用前款的規定。
                      (相關資料:案例5篇裁判文書84篇實務指南)

                      Article 40 Where the debtor of principal contract causes the guarantor to provide a guarantee contrary to his will by means of fraud, intimidation or the like, and the creditor knows or should know about such fact, Article 30 of Security Law shall apply.

                       

                      第四十條主合同債務人采取欺詐、脅迫等手段,使保證人在違背真實意思的情況下提供保證的,債權人知道或者應當知道欺詐、脅迫事實的,按照擔保法第三十條的規定處理。
                      (相關資料:案例1篇裁判文書8篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 41 Where the debtor and guarantor establish principal and guarantee contracts by jointly cheating the creditor, the creditor may request the people's court to rescind such contracts. The guarantor and debtor shall bear joint liability for the creditor's consequent loss.

                       

                      第四十一條債務人與保證人共同欺騙債權人,訂立主合同和保證合同的,債權人可以請求人民法院予以撤銷。因此給債權人造成損失的,由保證人與債務人承擔連帶賠償責任。
                      (相關資料:相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 42 Where the court decides that the guarantor shall assume guarantee or compensation liability, it shall be specified in the verdict that the guarantor is entitled to the rights in Article 31 of the  Security Law. If the guarantor's right of recourse is not clearly mentioned in the verdict, the guarantor has to bring another lawsuit on the basis of his compensation.
                      The limitation of action for the guarantor to recover from the debtor shall be computed from the date when the guarantor assumes liability to the creditor.

                       

                      第四十二條人民法院判決保證人承擔保證責任或者賠償責任的,應當在判決書主文中明確保證人享有擔保法第三十一條規定的權利。判決書中未予明確追償權的,保證人只能按照承擔責任的事實,另行提起訴訟。
                      保證人對債務人行使追償權的訴訟時效,自保證人向債權人承擔責任之日起開始計算。
                      (相關資料:地方法規1篇案例2篇裁判文書569篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 43 Where the guarantor assumes liability independently and his actual payment exceeds the principal obligation, the guarantor may only have recourse against the debtor within the scope of the principal obligation.

                       

                      第四十三條保證人自行履行保證責任時,其實際清償額大于主債權范圍的,保證人只能在主債權范圍內對債務人行使追償權。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書2篇實務指南)

                      Article 44 During the term of guarantee, the creditor may either declare his claim to the people's court or make a claim to the guarantor when the court has accepted a bankruptcy application of the debtor.
                      The guarantor shall still assume obligation for the portion unpaid in the bankruptcy procedure after the creditor has declared his claim. The creditor shall require the guarantor to perform liability his obligations within six months from the termination of the bankruptcy procedure.

                       

                      第四十四條保證期間,人民法院受理債務人破產案件的,債權人既可以向人民法院申報債權,也可以向保證人主張權利。
                      債權人申報債權后在破產程序中未受清償的部分,保證人仍應當承擔保證責任。債權人要求保證人承擔保證責任的,應當在破產程序終結后六個月內提出。
                      (相關資料:司法解釋1篇地方法規1篇案例1篇裁判文書11篇相關論文2篇實務指南)

                      Article 45 Where the creditor knows or should know about the debtor's bankruptcy but fails to declare a claim or notify the guarantor, if such failure causes the guarantor's inability to claim recourse right in advance, the guarantor will be exempt from obligation within the scope (for the amount) that may be paid in the bankruptcy distribution.

                       

                      第四十五條債權人知道或者應當知道債務人破產,既未申報債權也未通知保證人,致使保證人不能預先行使追償權的,保證人在該債權在破產程序中可能受償的范圍內免除保證責任。
                      (相關資料:實務指南)

                      Article 46 Where the creditor has not declared made a claim after the court accepts the debtor's bankruptcy case, the joint guarantors shall declare a claim as one subject for recourse in advance.

                       

                      第四十六條人民法院受理債務人破產案件后,債權人未申報債權的,各連帶共同保證的保證人應當作為一個主體申報債權,預先行使追償權。
                      (相關資料:實務指南)

                      PART III INTERPRETATION OF MORTGAGE

                       

                      三、關于抵押部分的解釋

                      Article 47 Where the parties have registered the mortgaged property of a house or other buildings that have been approved but not built, or are still under construction, such mortgage may be considered effective by the people's court.

                       

                      第四十七條以依法獲準尚未建造的或者正在建造中的房屋或者其他建筑物抵押的,當事人辦理了抵押物登記,人民法院可以認定抵押有效。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書33篇相關論文2篇實務指南)

                      Article 48 Mortgage on buildings that are determined by legal procedure as violating laws or regulations shall be invalid.

                       

                      第四十八條以法定程序確認為違法、違章的建筑物抵押的,抵押無效。
                      (相關資料:實務指南)

                      Article 49 The mortgage on a property without ownership certificate may be considered valid if the ownership certificate is available or the property is registered before termination of court debate in the first instance.
                      The parties that fail to register the mortgaged property may not make a claim against a third party.

                       

                      第四十九條以尚未辦理權屬證書的財產抵押的,在第一審法庭辯論終結前能夠提供權利證書或者補辦登記手續的,可以認定抵押有效。
                      當事人未辦理抵押物登記手續的,不得對抗第三人。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書12篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 50 Where a mortgage is made on all the properties stipulated in Article 34(1) of the Security Law, the scope of the mortgaged property shall be determined by the registration. The value of the mortgaged property shall be confirmed upon the realization of mortgage rights.

                       

                      第五十條以擔保法第三十四條第一款所列財產一并抵押的,抵押財產的范圍應當以登記的財產為準。抵押財產的價值在抵押權實現時予以確定。
                      (相關資料:司法解釋1篇裁判文書4篇實務指南)

                      Article 51 Where the obligation exceeds the value of the mortgaged property, there will not be priority of payment for the exceeding portion.

                       

                      第五十一條抵押人所擔保的債權超出其抵押物價值的,超出的部分不具有優先受償的效力。
                      (相關資料:司法解釋1篇裁判文書4篇實務指南)

                      Article 52 Where the parties mortgage crops and the use right of the indispensable land simultaneously, the mortgage on land use right is invalid.

                       

                      第五十二條當事人以農作物和與其尚未分離的土地使用權同時抵押的,土地使用權部分的抵押無效。
                      (相關資料:實務指南)

                      Article 53 Where institutions and social organizations for the public good such as schools, kindergartens, hospitals, etc., for their own debts, mortgage properties other than the educational, medical and other facilities for public good, such mortgage may be considered valid by the court.

                       

                      第五十三條學校、幼兒園、醫院等以公益為目的的事業單位、社會團體,以其教育設施、醫療衛生設施和其他社會公益設施以外的財產為自身債務設定抵押的,人民法院可以認定抵押有效。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書1篇實務指南)

                      Article 54 Mortgage made by a co-owner by shares on his own share of common property is valid.
                      Where the common owner mortgages the jointly owned property without consent of other owners, such mortgage is invalid. If the other common owners know or should know about such mortgage and do not object it, such act will be deemed as consent, and the mortgage shall be valid.

                       

                      第五十四條按份共有人以其共有財產中享有的份額設定抵押的,抵押有效。
                      共同共有人以其共有財產設定抵押,未經其他共有人的同意,抵押無效。但是,其他共有人知道或者應當知道而未提出異議的視為同意,抵押有效。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書17篇實務指南)

                      Article 55 The property preservation and execution procedures such as sealing up, detaining, etc. taken to the mortgaged property shall not influence the effect of the mortgage.

                       

                      第五十五條已經設定抵押的財產被采取查封、扣押等財產保全或者執行措施的,不影響抵押權的效力。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書3篇實務指南)

                      Article 56 Where there is no stipulation or no clear stipulation in mortgage contract concerning the category of mortgaged principal obligation and mortgaged property, and neither can be supplemented or determined by principal contract and mortgage contract, the mortgage shall be seen as not created.
                      Where it is stipulated by law that a mortgage contract will take effect only after registration, while the mortgagor refuses to go through such procedure according to principle of good faith, the mortgagor shall compensate the creditor for consequent loss.

                       

                      第五十六條抵押合同對被擔保的主債權種類、抵押財產沒有約定或者約定不明,根據主合同和抵押合同不能補正或者無法推定的,抵押不成立。
                      法律規定登記生效的抵押合同簽訂后,抵押人違背誠實信用原則拒絕辦理抵押登記致使債權人受到損失的,抵押人應當承擔賠償責任。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書35篇實務指南)

                      Article 57 Where the parties stipulate in mortgagee the mortgage contract that if the creditor has not received full payment upon the expiration date of performance, the ownership of mortgaged property will be transferred to the creditor, such provision shall be invalid and shall have no effect on other provisions of the contract.
                      Where a mortgagee has not received full payment at the expiration of the term for performance of obligation, he may agree with the mortgagor to obtain the mortgaged property by converting its value. While if the interests of later mortgagee or other creditor are damaged thereof (not clear what this part of the sentence means), the people's court may apply stipulations of Articles 74 and 75in Contract Law.

                       

                      第五十七條當事人在抵押合同中約定,債務履行期屆滿抵押權人未受清償時,抵押物的所有權轉移為債權人所有的內容無效。該內容的無效不影響抵押合同其他部分內容的效力。
                      債務履行期屆滿后抵押權人未受清償時,抵押權人和抵押人可以協議以抵押物折價取得抵押物。但是,損害順序在后的擔保物權人和其他債權人利益的,人民法院可以適用合同法第七十四條、第七十五條的有關規定。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書5篇實務指南)

                      Article 58 Where the parties register the mortgaged property in with different authorities in the same day, the order shall be deemed as the same.
                      If the continuous registrations are made due to contributes to the authority's reason, the first day to register the mortgaged property shall be seen as the registration date of mortgage and shall be the basis to determine the order of mortgage right.

                       

                      第五十八條當事人同一天在不同的法定登記部門辦理抵押物登記的,視為順序相同。
                      因登記部門的原因致使抵押物進行連續登記的,抵押物第一次登記的日期,視為抵押登記的日期,并依此確定抵押權的順序。
                      (相關資料:實務指南)

                      Article 59 Where the parties can not register the mortgaged property due to the authority's reason, if the mortgagor provides right certificate to the creditor, it can be concluded that the creditor has priority right of payment for the property. But without registering the mortgaged property, the parties can not make a claim against a third party.

                       

                      第五十九條當事人辦理抵押物登記手續時,因登記部門的原因致使其無法辦理抵押物登記,抵押人向債權人交付權利憑證的,可以認定債權人對該財產有優先受償權。但是,未辦理抵押物登記的,不得對抗第三人。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書12篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 60 Where a mortgage is made on real estate listed in Article 42 (2) of Security Law, and there is no stipulation by governments of county or above level concerning registration authorities, if the parities register the mortgage in administration authorities of land or real estate, the people's court may confirm effectiveness of such registration.

                       

                      第六十條以擔保法第四十二條第(二)項規定的不動產抵押的,縣級以上地方人民政府對登記部門未作規定,當事人在土地管理部門或者房產管理部門辦理了抵押物登記手續,人民法院可以確認其登記的效力。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書1篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 61 Where the content of the mortgage registration contravenes that of the mortgage contract, the former shall prevail.

                       

                      第六十一條抵押物登記記載的內容與抵押合同約定的內容不一致的,以登記記載的內容為準。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書14篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 62 Where the mortgaged property is owned by a third party due to attaching, mixing or processing, the mortgage shall affect the compensation; where the mortgagor becomes the owner of the attachment, mixture or processed product, the mortgage will affect such attachment, mixture or processed product; where a third party jointly owns the attachment, mixture or processed product with the owner of mortgaged property, the mortgage will affect the share enjoyed by the mortgagor.

                       

                      第六十二條抵押物因附合、混合或者加工使抵押物的所有權為第三人所有的,抵押權的效力及于補償金;抵押物所有人為附合物、混合物或者加工物的所有人的,抵押權的效力及于附合物、混合物或者加工物;第三人與抵押物所有人為附合物、混合物或者加工物的共有人的,抵押權的效力及于抵押人對共有物享有的份額。
                      (相關資料:相關論文2篇實務指南)

                      Article 63 Where a property is accessory of the mortgaged property prior to the mortgage creation, the mortgage shall have effect on such accessory. While if the mortgaged property and its accessory are independently owned by two or more persons, the mortgage shall not have effect on the accessory.

                       

                      第六十三條抵押權設定前為抵押物的從物的,抵押權的效力及于抵押物的從物。但是,抵押物與其從物為兩個以上的人分別所有時,抵押權的效力不及于抵押物的從物。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書1篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 64 Where a mortgaged property is seized by a court due to the debtor's failure to perform his obligation at the expiration of the term for such performance, from the date of seizure, the natural and statutory fruits of the mortgaged property obtained by the mortgagee shall be paid in the following order:

                       

                      第六十四條債務履行期屆滿,債務人不履行債務致使抵押物被人民法院依法扣押的,自扣押之日起抵押權人收取的由抵押物分離的天然孳息和法定孳息,按照下列順序清償:

                      1. expenses for obtaining fruits;

                       

                      (一)收取孳息的費用;

                      2. interest for principal obligation;

                       

                      (二)主債權的利息;

                      3. Principal obligation.

                       

                      (三)主債權。
                      (相關資料:實務指南)

                      Article 65 Where the mortgagor mortgages a leased property, after the realization of mortgage right, the leasing contract shall still be binding on the consignee of such property within the duration of the lease contract.

                       

                      第六十五條抵押人將已出租的財產抵押的,抵押權實現后,租賃合同在有效期內對抵押物的受讓人繼續有效。
                      (相關資料:地方法規1篇裁判文書6篇相關論文3篇實務指南)

                      Article 66 Where the mortgagor leases a mortgaged property, after the realization of mortgage right, the leasing contract will not be binding on the consignee.
                      When leasing the mortgaged property, if the mortgagor fails to notify the leasee in writing about the fact, the mortgagor shall compensate the leasee's loss arising thereof; if notified by the mortgagor in writing, the leasee shall bear the loss individually if any damage arises thereof.

                       

                      第六十六條抵押人將已抵押的財產出租的,抵押權實現后,租賃合同對受讓人不具有約束力。
                      抵押人將已抵押的財產出租時,如果抵押人未書面告知承租人該財產已抵押的,抵押人對出租抵押物造成承租人的損失承擔賠償責任;如果抵押人已書面告知承租人該財產已抵押的,抵押權實現造成承租人的損失,由承租人自已承擔。
                      (相關資料:地方法規1篇裁判文書19篇相關論文2篇實務指南)

                      Article 67 During the term of mortgage, if the mortgagor transfers the mortgaged property without notifying the mortgagee or consignee, the mortgagee can still exercise his mortgage right on condition that the mortgaged property has been registered; the consignee who has obtained the ownership of the property may pay all the debts in the debtor's place to extinguish mortgage right. After payment, the consignee is entitled to recourse against the mortgagor.
                      If the mortgaged property has not been registered, the mortgagee is not entitled to claim against the consignee. Any consequent loss of the mortgagee shall be covered by the mortgagor.

                       

                      第六十七條抵押權存續期間,抵押人轉讓抵押物未通知抵押權人或者未告知受讓人的,如果抵押物已經登記的,抵押權人仍可以行使抵押權;取得抵押物所有權的受讓人,可以代替債務人清償其全部債務,使抵押權消滅。受讓人清償債務后可以向抵押人追償。
                      如果抵押物未經登記的,抵押權不得對抗受讓人,因此給抵押權人造成損失的,由抵押人承擔賠償責任。
                      (相關資料:案例1篇裁判文書24篇相關論文8篇實務指南)

                      Article 68 Mortgage right shall not be influenced if the mortgaged property is inherited or donated.

                       

                      第六十八條抵押物依法被繼承或者贈與的,抵押權不受影響。
                      (相關資料:實務指南)

                      Article 69 If there are several general creditors and at the time of payment the debtor is unable to fulfill other debts by mortgaging all or part of his property for one creditor through malicious collusion, the other creditors whose interests has been damaged may request the court to rescind such mortgage.

                       

                      第六十九條債務人有多個普通債權人的,在清償債務時,債務人與其中一個債權人惡意串通,將其全部或者部分財產抵押給該債權人,因此喪失了履行其他債務的能力,損害了其他債權人的合法權益,受損害的其他債權人可以請求人民法院撤銷該抵押行為。
                      (相關資料:其他規范性文件1篇裁判文書2篇相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 70 When the act of a mortgagor may depreciate a mortgaged property, and the mortgagor refuses to restore the original condition or provide security, the mortgagee may require the debtor to perform his liability or require to exercise mortgage right in advance.

                       

                      第七十條抵押人的行為足以使抵押物價值減少的,抵押權人請求抵押人恢復原狀或提供擔保遭到拒絕時,抵押權人可以請求債務人履行債務,也可以請求提前行使抵押權。
                      (相關資料:相關論文1篇實務指南)

                      Article 71 Prior to full payment of principal obligation, the mortgagee may exercise his right on the whole of the mortgaged property.
                      When the mortgaged property is divided or partially transferred, the mortgagee may exercise his right on the divided or transferred mortgaged property.

                       

                      第七十一條主債權未受全部清償的,抵押權人可以就抵押物的全部行使其抵押權。
                      抵押物被分割或者部分轉讓的,抵押權人可以就分割或者轉讓后的抵押物行使抵押權。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書4篇實務指南)

                      Article 72 The creditor may exercise his share of mortgage right after the principal obligation is divided or partially transferred.
                      The mortgagor shall still mortgage for multiple debtors' obligation with his mortgaged property after the principal debt is divided or partially transferred. If the mortgage is provided by a third party, and the creditor allows the debtor to transfer debt without written consent of the  mortgagor, the mortgagor will not be liable for such portion of the  obligation.

                       

                      第七十二條主債權被分割或者部分轉讓的,各債權人可以就其享有的債權份額行使抵押權。
                      主債務被分割或者部分轉讓的,抵押人仍以其抵押物擔保數個債務人履行債務。但是,第三人提供抵押的,債權人許可債務人轉讓債務未經抵押人書面同意的,抵押人對未經其同意轉讓的債務,不再承擔擔保責任。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書5篇實務指南)

                      Article 73 Where the proceeds from converting, auctioning or selling of the mortgaged property are lower than the agreed value when the mortgage is created, payment shall be made according to the actual value of the proceeds. The debtor shall answer for the shortfall.

                       

                      第七十三條抵押物折價或者拍賣、變賣該抵押物的價款低于抵押權設定時約定價值的,應當按照抵押物實現的價值進行清償。不足清償的剩余部分,由債務人清償。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書8篇實務指南)

                      Article 74 When there is no agreement of the parties on payment, the proceeds from converting, auctioning and selling of the mortgaged property shall be paid in the following order:

                       

                      第七十四條抵押物折價或者拍賣、變賣所得的價款,當事人沒有約定的,按下列順序清償:

                      1. expenses to realize the mortgage right;

                       

                      (一)實現抵押權的費用;

                      2. interest of the principal obligation;

                       

                      (二)主債權的利息;

                      3. Principal obligation.

                       

                      (三)主債權。
                      (相關資料:實務指南)

                      Article 75 Where there are two or more mortgagors for one obligation and the creditor waives his right of mortgage provided by debtor, the other mortgagors may request the court to lessen or exempt him from security liability.
                      Where there are two or more mortgagors for one obligation, and there is no agreement or no clear agreement on the share or order of obligation mortgaged by properties, the mortgagee may exercise his right on any one or every one of such properties.
                      After having borne security liability, the mortgagor may have recourse against the debtor or require other mortgagors to answer for their own shares.

                       

                      第七十五條同一債權有兩個以上抵押人的,債權人放棄債務人提供的抵押擔保的,其他抵押人可以請求人民法院減輕或者免除其應當承擔的擔保責任。
                      同一債權有兩個以上抵押人的,當事人對其提供的抵押財產所擔保的債權份額或者順序沒有約定或者約定不明的,抵押權人可以就其中任一或者各個財產行使抵押權。
                      抵押人承擔擔保責任后,可以向債務人追償,也可以要求其他抵押人清償其應當承擔的份額。
                      (相關資料:裁判文書17篇實務指南)


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