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                      雙語+MP3|美國學生世界歷史51 騎士和騎士制度時期

                      所屬教程:希利爾:美國學生文史經典套裝

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                      qinting

                      2018年10月23日

                      隨身學
                      掃描二維碼方便學習和分享
                      http://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/10000/10122/美國學生世界歷史-51.mp3
                      http://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012


                      51
                      Knights and Days of Chivalry
                      騎士和騎士制度時期

                           THOSE years in history which I have been telling you about are known as the days of chivalry-which means the times of ladies and gentlemen. The lord and his family were the gentlemen and the ladies. All the other people, by far the greater number, were just common people.
                           There were no schools for these common people. Little was done for them. They were taught to work and nothing else. The sons of a lord of a castle, however, were very carefully taught. Even they were taught only two things, how to be gentlemen and how to fight. Reading and writing were thought of no importance; in fact, it was usually considered a waste of time to learn such things.
                           This is the way the son of a lord was brought up. He stayed with his mother until he was seven years old. When he reached the age of seven he was called a page; and for the next seven years-that is, until he was fourteen, he remained a page. During the time he was a page, his chief business was to wait on the ladies of the castle. He ran their errands, carried their messages, waited on tables, etc. He also learned to ride a horse and to be brave and courteous.
                           When he was fourteen years old, he became a squire and remained a squire for the next seven years; that is, until he was twenty-one. During the time he was a squire he waited on the men, as he had waited on the ladies when he was a page. He attended to the men's horses, went to battle with them, led an extra horse, and carried another spear or lance, in case these should be needed.
                           When he was twenty-one years old, if he had been a good squire and had learned the lessons that he was taught, he then became a knight. Becoming a knight was an important ceremony like graduating exercises, for the grown boy was now to take up the business of a man.
                           To get ready for this ceremony, first, he bathed. This may not seem worth mentioning, but in those days one very rarely took a bath, sometimes not for years. He was then dressed in new clothes. Thus washed and dressed, he prayed all night long in the church. When day came, he appeared before all the people and solemnly swore always to do and to be certain things:

                           To be brave and good
                           To fight for the Christian religion
                           To protect the weak
                           To honor women

                           These were his vows. A white leather belt was then put on him and gold spurs fastened on his boots. After this had been done, he knelt, and his lord struck him over the shoulders with the flat side of a sword, saying as he did so, "I dub thee knight."
                           A knight went into battle covered with a suit of armor made of iron rings or steel plates like fish scales, and with a helmet or hood of iron. This suit protected him from the arrows and lances of the enemy. Of course if they had had any shot or shell, armor would have been no use at all, but they had no such things then.
                           Knights were so completely covered by their armor that when sides became mixed up in fighting, they could not tell one another apart. It was impossible to know who were friends and who were enemies.
                           So the knights wore, on the outside of the coat that went over their armor, a design of an animal, such as a lion, or of a plant or a rose or a cross or some ornament, and this design was known as a coat of arms.
                           A knight, as I told you, was first of all taught to be a gentleman, and so we sometimes speak of one who has good manners and is courteous, especially to ladies, as knightly or chivalrous. When a knight came into the presence of a lady he took off his helmet. It meant, "You are my friend, and so I do not need my helmet." That is why gentlemen raise their hats nowadays when they meet ladies.
                           But the most important thing the knights had to learn was to fight. Even their games were play fights.
                           Each country and each age has had its own games or sports in which it has taken special delight. The Greeks had their Olympic Games. The Romans had their chariot races and gladiatorial contests. We have football and baseball. But the chief sport of the knights was a kind of sham battle called the tournament.
                           The tournament was held in a field known as the lists. Large crowds with banners flying and trumpets blowing would gather around the lists to watch the sham fight, as crowds nowadays flock to a big football game waving pennants and tooting horns. The knights on horseback took their places at opposite ends of the lists. They carried lances, the points of which were covered so that they would not make a wound. At a given signal, they rushed toward the center of the field and tried with their lances to throw each other off their horses. The winner who succeeded in throwing the other knights was presented with a ribbon or a keepsake by one of the ladies, and a knight thought as much of this trophy of victory as the winner of a cup in a tennis tournament nowadays.

                      Man with falcon(帶著獵鷹的騎士)
                           Knights were very fond of hunting with dogs. But they also hunted with a trained bird called a falcon, and both lords and ladies delighted in this sport. The falcon was trained like a hunting dog to catch other birds, such as wild ducks and pigeons, and also small animals. The falcon was chained to the wrist of the lord or lady, and its head was covered with a hood as it was carried out to hunt. When a bird was seen, the hood was removed, and the falcon, which was very swift, would swoop down upon its prey and capture it. Thereupon the hunter would come up, take the captured animal, and put the hood on the falcon again. The men, however, usually preferred hunting the wild boar, which was a kind of pig with sharp tusks, for this was more dangerous and therefore supposed to be more of a man's sport.






                           現在我講述的歷史上的那些年份被稱為騎士制度時期--指的是紳士和貴婦的年代。領主及其家庭成員是紳士和貴婦。所有其他人,比紳士貴婦數目多很多的人,只是平民。
                           沒有供這些平民上的學校。幾乎沒有人為他們做這些。他們只被傳授干活的技能,別的什么也不學。不過城堡領主的兒子則被非常精心地教育著,即使只教他們兩件事情--怎樣做紳士和怎樣打仗。看書寫字被認為無足輕重;事實上,學這些東西通常被認為是浪費時間。
                           領主的兒子就是這樣被養育成人的。他和母親在一起呆到7歲。滿7歲時,他被稱為騎士侍童;接下來的7年里--就是說,到14歲,他始終是騎士侍童。在這段時間里,他是個小聽差,主要任務是侍候城堡里的貴婦人。替她們跑腿,傳信, 服侍她們進餐,等等。他也學習騎馬,學做勇敢無畏謙恭的人。
                           14歲時,他成為騎士扈從,在接下來的7年里,就是說,直到他21歲,他始終是騎士扈從。在這段時間里,他是個隨從,就像他當騎士侍童時侍候貴婦人那樣侍奉騎士。他照料騎士的馬匹,跟隨他們作戰,還牽著另一匹馬,扛著另一支長槍或長矛,以備不時之需。
                           21歲時,如果他是一名表現良好的騎士扈從,已經學會了所教的課程,那么他就成了一名騎士。成為騎士,就像畢業儀式,是一項重要的典禮,因為這個男孩已經成年,現在要開始男人的事業了。
                           為這項典禮做好準備,首先他要沐浴。這看上去也許不值一提,但是那時候洗一次澡非常難得,有時很多年都不洗澡。沐浴后他穿上新衣服。就這樣沐浴更衣后,他在教堂里祈禱整整一晚上。當白天來臨時,他出現在所有人面前,莊嚴宣誓表示要始終做什么樣的事,成為什么樣的人:

                           要勇敢,正直
                           要為基督宗教而戰
                           要保護弱者
                           要尊重女士

                           這些就是他的誓言。接著,有人為他系上一條白色皮帶,在他的靴子上扣上金馬刺。這些做完以后,他跪下,領主一邊用劍的扁平的側面在他雙肩上拍打幾下,一邊說:"我授予你騎士爵位。"
                           騎士投入戰斗時披掛著鎧甲,鎧甲用鐵環或魚鱗似的鋼片制成,還戴著頭盔或鐵制頭罩。這套盔甲保護他免受敵人弓箭和長矛的傷害。當然嘍,要是他們中了子彈或炮彈,盔甲就一點用也沒有了,但是那時候他們沒有這些武器。
                           騎士們全身被盔甲包得嚴嚴實實,雙方混戰在一起的時候,他們根本無法區分彼此。不可能知道誰是敵誰是友。
                           所以騎士在罩在鎧甲上的外衣外面佩戴一種動物圖案,比如獅子,或者植物圖案,或者玫瑰圖案,或者十字形圖案或其他飾物,這種圖案被稱為盾徽。
                           正如我告訴過你,騎士首先被教育成一名紳士,所以現在有時候我們把一個舉止文雅、謙恭有禮,尤其對女士彬彬有禮的人,說成具有騎士風范或有騎士風度。騎士在貴婦人面前,會摘掉頭盔,意思是"你是我朋友,所以我不需要頭盔"。這就是為什么當今有風度的男士遇見女士要脫帽致敬。
                           但是騎士必須學會的最重要的事情是打仗。甚至他們的運動都是打仗比賽。
                           每個國家、每個時代都有自己的比賽或運動,從中獲得不同尋常的樂趣。希臘人有奧林匹克運動會。羅馬人有戰車比賽和角斗士比武。我們現在有足球和棒球比賽。但是騎士們的主要運動是一種模擬戰,被稱為馬上比武大會。
                           馬上比武大會在稱為"比武場"的場地舉行。大量民眾揮舞著旗幟、吹著喇叭聚集到比武場周圍觀看模擬戰,就像如今觀眾成群結隊搖著三角旗、吹著號角去看 一場盛大的足球比賽一樣。騎士們騎著馬,在比武場兩端各就各位。他們手執長矛,長矛的尖端已經被裹住,這樣就不會造成一點傷害。約定的信號一發出,騎士們就沖向場地中央,設法用長矛把對方挑下馬來。將另一方騎士挑下馬者為勝利者,將得到一位貴婦人授予的一條綬帶或一份紀念品。騎士看待這種勝利紀念品和如今網球聯賽的獲勝者看待贏得的獎杯是一樣的。
                           騎士們非常熱衷帶著狗打獵。但是打獵時他們也會帶上一種訓練過的叫做獵鷹的鳥。領主和貴婦們都以這項消遣為樂。獵鷹像獵狗一樣受過訓練,捕捉像野鴨、鴿子這樣的鳥,也捕捉小動物。帶出去打獵時,獵鷹拴在領主或貴婦的手腕上,頭上罩著頭罩。一發現鳥,就被摘去頭罩,獵鷹迅速地撲向獵物,捉住它。隨即,獵手趕上前,拾起捕獲的獵物,重新給獵鷹帶上頭罩。不過男人通常喜歡獵取長著鋒利獠牙的野豬,因為這更加危險,所以被認為是更適合男人的消遣運動。


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