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                      雙語+MP3|美國學生世界歷史50 真正的城堡

                      所屬教程:希利爾:美國學生文史經典套裝

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                      qinting

                      2018年10月22日

                      隨身學
                      掃描二維碼方便學習和分享
                      http://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/10000/10122/美國學生世界歷史-50.mp3
                      http://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012

                      50
                      Real Castles
                      真正的城堡

                           You may think that castles belong only in fairy tales of princes and princesses.
                           But about the Year 1000 there were castles almost everywhere over Europe, and they were not fairy castles but real ones with real people in them.
                           After the downfall of Rome in 476, the Roman Empire was broken to pieces like a cut-up puzzle-map, and people built castles on the pieces, and they kept on building castles up to the 1400's. This is why and how people built them and why they at last stopped building them.

                      Castle, drawbridge, moat, and knights
                      城堡、吊橋、護城河和騎士
                           Whenever any ruler, whether he was a king or only a prince, conquered another ruler, he gave to his generals, who had fought with him and helped him to win, pieces of the conquered land as a reward instead of paying them in money. The generals in turn gave pieces of their land to the chief men who had been under them and helped them in battle. These men who were given land were called lords or nobles, and each lord was called a vassal of him who gave the land. Each vassal had to promise to fight with his lord whenever he was needed. He could not make this promise lightly in an offhand way, however. He had to do it formally so that it would seem more binding. The vassal had to kneel in front of his lord, and make the solemn promise to fight when called upon. This was called doing homage. Then once a year, at least, thereafter, he had to make the same promise over again. This method of giving away land was known as the Feudal System.
                           Each of these lords or nobles then built himself a castle on the land that was given him, and there he lived like a little king with all his workpeople about him. The castle was not only his home, but it had to be a fort as well to protect him from other lords who might try to take his castle away from him. He usually placed it on the top of a hill or a cliff, so that the enemy could not reach it easily, if at all. It had great stone walls often ten feet or more thick. Surrounding the walls there was usually a ditch called a moat filled with water to make it more difficult for an enemy to get into the castle.
                           In times of peace, when there was no fighting, the men farmed the land outside the castle; but when there was war between lords, all the people went inside the castle walls, carrying all the food and cattle and everything else they had, so that they could live there for months or even years while the fighting was going on. A castle, therefore, had to be very large to hold so many people and animals for so long a time, and often it was really like a walled town.
                           Medieval women managed many of the things that went on inside the castle- cooking, spinning thread, weaving cloth, overseeing the servants, and taking care of the animals. When the men were away at war, sometimes for months or even years at a time, the women were in charge of all the farming activities and the family's money as well. Because there were so many wars, many women became widows. In that case, they took total charge of the family estates.
                           Inside the walls of the castle were many smaller buildings to house the people and animals and for cooking and storing the food. There might even be a church or chapel. The chief building was, of course, the house of the lord himself and this was called the keep.
                           The main room of the keep was the Great Hall, which was like a very large living room and dining room combined. Here meals were served at tables which were simply long and wide boards placed on something to hold them up. These boards were taken down and put away after the meal was over. That is where we get the names boarding and boarding house. There were no forks nor spoons nor plates nor saucers nor napkins. Everyone ate with his fingers and licked them or wiped them on his clothes. Table manners were more like stable manners. The bones and scraps they threw on the floor or to the dogs, who were allowed in the room. Itchy scratchy! What a mess! At the end of the meal towels and a large bowl of water were brought in so that those who wished might wash their hands. Do you suppose anybody washed the floor?
                           After dinner the household was entertained during the long evenings with songs and stories by men called minstrels, who played and sang and amused the company.
                           Shut up within the castle walls, it seemed as if the lord and his people would be absolutely safe against any attacks of his enemies. In the first place, any enemy would have had to cross the moat or ditch filled with water, which surrounded the castle. Across this moat there was a drawbridge to the entrance or gate of the castle. In the entrance itself was an iron gate called a portcullis, which was usually raised like a window to allow people to pass. In time of war the drawbridge was raised. But in case an enemy was seen approaching and there was not time to raise the drawbridge, this portcullis could be dropped at a moment's notice. When the drawbridge was raised there was no way of getting into the castle except by crossing the moat. Anyone trying to do this would have had stones or melted tar thrown down on him. Instead of windows in the wall of the castle there were only long slits through which the fighters could shoot arrows at the enemy. At the same time, it was very difficult for anyone on the outside to hit the small crack-like openings with an arrow.
                           Yet attacks were made on castles. Sometimes the enemy built a tall wooden tower on wheels. This they would roll up as close as they could get to the walls, and from its top shoot directly over into the castle.
                           Sometimes they built tunnels from the outside right under the ground, under the moat, and under the castle walls into the castle itself.
                           Sometimes they built huge machines called battering-rams, and with these they battered down the walls.
                           Sometimes they used machines like great sling-shots to throw stones over the walls. Of course there were no cannons nor cannonballs nor guns nor gunpowder then.
                           The lord and his family Were the rich people; all the others were little better than slaves. In times of peace most of the common people lived outside the castle walls on the land called the manor. The lord gave them just as little as he could and took from them just as much as he could. He had to feed and take some care of them, so that they could fight for him and serve him, just as he had to feed and take care of his horses that carried him to battle, and the cattle that provided him with milk and meat. But he didn't treat the people who served him as well as he did his domestic animals. The common people had to give their time and labor and a large part of the crops they raised to the lord. They themselves lived in miserable huts more like cowsheds, with only one room that had a dirt floor. Above this was perhaps a loft reached by a ladder where they went to bed. Bed was usually only a bundle of straw, and they slept in the clothes they wore during the day.
                           These workpeople were called serfs. Sometimes serfs could stand this kind of life no longer, and they would run away. If a serf was not caught within a year and a day, he was a free man. But if he was caught before the year and a day were up, the lord might whip him, brand him with hot irons, or even cut off his hands. Indeed, a lord could do almost anything he wished with his serfs except kill them-or sell them.
                           What do you think of the Feudal System?






                           也許你以為只有童話故事里有城堡,里面住著王子和公主。
                           但是大約在公元1000年,歐洲幾乎每個地方都有城堡,并不是童話中的那種,而是常人居住的真正的城堡。
                           公元476年羅馬衰亡以后,羅馬帝國四分五裂,其版圖就像地圖拼圖的碎片。于是人們就在這些版圖碎片上修建城堡,一直修建到15世紀初。這章的內容就是人們為什么、怎樣建城堡以及為什么最后不再建城堡。
                           當時,任何一位統治者,不管他是國王還是只是王子,每當他征服了另一位統治者,就會將一些占領的土地獎賞給隨他征戰、助他獲勝的將軍們,而不是獎賞他們金錢。這些將軍再將這些土地賞賜其麾下參戰的各個頭領。這些獲得土地的人被稱為領主或貴族,每個頭領也被稱為領主的封臣。每位封臣必須發誓:每逢需要,他都要追隨領主戰斗。但是他不能輕率地、隨隨便便地發誓,而必須莊重地發誓,這樣誓言似乎更有約束力。封臣必須在領主前跪下,鄭重地宣誓表示招之即來,來之能戰。這一過程被稱為"宣誓效忠"。此后每年至少進行一次同樣的宣誓。這種分封土地的程式被稱為封建制度。
                           隨后每個領主或貴族都在受封的土地上建造城堡。在城堡里,領主像一位小小的國王那樣生活,身邊都是聽從他的下人。城堡不僅是他的家,還是保護他的要塞,防止其他領主可能試圖來搶奪。城堡通常建在山頂或懸崖上,這樣即使有敵人來攻,也難以到達。城堡高大的石頭城墻,至少有十英尺厚。城墻四周通常環繞著注有水的壕溝,叫"護城河",讓敵人更難攻進城堡。
                           和平時期,沒有戰爭,人們在城堡外的土地上耕種。但是當領主之間發生戰爭,所有人就帶上所有的糧食、牲畜和其他東西,撤退到城堡里面,這樣戰事持續時,他們可以住上幾個月甚至幾年。所以城堡必須非常大,足以長期容納大量的人和牲 畜。城堡通常就像有城墻的小鎮。
                           中世紀的婦女在城堡里處理很多事情--做飯、紡線、織布、監督仆人以及看管牲畜。男人外出作戰,幾個月甚至幾年不歸,婦女就負責所有的農活,還要管理家庭財產。那時戰爭頻繁,許多婦女成了寡婦。這種情況下,她們就掌管了家產。
                           在城堡的城墻內有許多較小的建筑,供人們居住、飼養牲口、做飯和儲存食物。或許甚而還有一座教堂或一間禮拜室。當然,城堡的主建筑是領主本人的房子,稱為"城堡主樓"。
                           城堡主樓最大的房間是大廳,就像一間大客廳再加上餐廳。大廳里飯菜端上桌,桌子只不過是放在某個支撐物上的又長又寬的木板。就餐后,木板拿下,收起來。"寄宿"[1]和"提供膳宿的家庭旅館"(boarding house )因此得名。那時沒有餐叉、餐勺、盤子、碟子、餐巾。人們用手就餐,邊吃邊舔手指或者把手指在衣服上蹭蹭。餐桌禮儀更像"馬廄"禮儀。人們隨手就把骨頭、碎屑扔在地上或喂狗。狗是允許進出房間的。這些讓人癢癢的扎人的東西!真是到處都臟兮兮亂糟糟的!吃完飯,毛巾和一大缽水會端進來,有人愿意,可以洗洗手。你以為還會有人沖洗地面嗎?
                           飯后,有男藝人唱歌、講故事給全家人解悶,度過漫長的夜晚,這些男藝人被稱為豪門藝人,專門表演、唱歌、逗樂子,為賓客提供消遣。
                           關在城墻里,領主和臣民似乎絕對安全,可抵御敵人的任何進攻。首先,敵人必須要渡過城墻四周的注滿水的護城河或壕溝。有一座吊橋橫跨護城河,直通城堡的入口或大門。入口那里有扇稱為吊門的鐵門,可以像窗子一樣提起來,讓那些人通過。戰時,吊橋升起。但是如果眼看敵人已經接近,沒有時間升起吊橋了,吊門說關上就能關上。吊橋升起后,沒有其他辦法可以進入城堡,除非渡過護城河。任何試圖渡河的人都會遭到投下的石頭或潑下來的熔化的柏油的攻擊。城墻上沒有窗戶,只有供戰士向敵人射箭的狹長的開口。然而,要從城墻外將箭射進裂縫一樣的小小的開口,就非常困難了。
                           不過城堡依然會遭受攻擊。有時,敵人建造有輪子的木制高塔。推動輪子讓木塔盡可能地接近城墻,敵人就從高塔頂端直接向城堡里射箭。
                           有時敵人從城堡外挖掘地道,從地下通過護城河和城墻,到達城堡內部。
                           有時敵人建造巨大的稱為攻城槌的機械,用來撞倒城墻。
                           有時敵人使用大彈弓似的機械投擲石頭越過城墻。當然,那時沒有大炮、炮彈,也沒有槍支、火藥。
                           領主及其家庭非常富有,其他人幾乎像奴隸一樣貧窮。和平時期,大多數平民百姓生活在城堡外的稱為"采邑"的土地上。領主盡可能少地給予他們,可是卻盡可能多地搜刮他們。領主必須向他們提供食物以及必要的照顧,這樣他們才會為他打戰,為他服務,就像他必須喂飽和照顧好馬、牛一樣,馬在戰場上是坐騎,牛則 提供奶和肉。但是領主對待仆人不如他的家畜。平民百姓必須為領主出工出力,還要把他們種植的大部分莊稼奉送給領主。他們自己住在牛棚似的簡陋的棚屋里,只有一個房間有泥土地面。也許棚屋上面會有一間閣樓,人們順著梯子爬上去睡覺。床通常只是一捆麥稈,人們睡覺時還穿著白天干活的衣服。
                           這些勞工被稱為"農奴"。有時農奴再也無法忍受這樣的生活,就會逃跑。如果農奴在一年零一天內沒有被抓住,他就是個自由人。但是如果農奴在這一期限內被抓住了,領主可以鞭打他、用燒紅的鐵塊在他身上烙上印記,甚至砍掉他的雙手。事實上,領主可以對農奴為所欲為,只要不殺掉他們--或賣掉他們。
                           你認為封建制度怎么樣?



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